Specification of A.C. Motors to work in Classified areas

Helpfull tips to considered at the time of making and A.C. Motor purchase order.

Lightining Protection System Design

Guide to design and establish the efective protection zone agains lightings.

Welcome to the website Electrical Engineering and Technology. A place for Modern Science

Our main purpose is presenting information about the latest technology improvements in the fields of electronics and electrical engineering as well as the influence of other science fields that might get involved.

Moreover it will present general interest topics for all people involved in the area day by day, having a simple approach to the subjects that are treated, in order to make it easy for all to understand the deepest topics about electricity , including for those who just have a hint of curiosity and the desire of learning.



Tuesday, March 20, 2018

Corte por láser para piezas en aluminio o metal

El corte por láser es una técnica empleada para cortar piezas basado en un láser como fuente de energía. Esta técnica está basada en la alta potencia de la onda láser que se encuentra concentrada en un diámetro pequeño a través de un lente al momento de ser disparado. Cuando el láser hace contacto con la superficie, la misma se funde permitiendo el corte del material con la silueta deseada y gran precisión.


En la siguiente imagen se ilustran las partes de un cortador láser


Las aplicaciones del corte por láser son múltiples en una gran variedad de sectores, principalmente en procesos de manufactura; por ejemplo, en el sector industrial en motores, maquinarias y construcciones, en el sector aéreo y espacial; y el sector que ha tenido un auge en los últimos años el sector de mercadeo, publicidad, diseño de artes, iluminación, decoración y muebles.

En el siguiente video se muestra el proceso de corte por láser para una chapa de metal





Arte

Industria Automotriz

Decoración



Moda

Todos estos usos del corte por láser son posibles ya que las máquinas cortadoras por láser funcionan a través del Control Numérico Computarizado (también conocido por sus siglas CNC), las cuales son programadas con el diseño o figura deseada y posteriormente el cortador láser procede a realizar su trabajo.

Los beneficios del corte por láser son evidentes en la creación de diseños con infinidad de formas geométricas y siluetas, sin la necesidad del uso de plantillas, logrando acabados de primera en las piezas con bordes finos, lisos y limpios. Las ventajas más relevantes desde el punto de vista práctico son los siguientes:

  • Acabados: Fabricación de copias exactas en toda la producción, sin errores. Eliminación de sobrecostos por limpiar “residuos de material” que quedan al final del corte en otras técnicas
  • Variedad de materiales: Efectividad de corte en una gran cantidad de materiales como: cerámica, madera, plástico, goma y en un gran número de metales.
  • Versatilidad: Posibilidad de fabricación de piezas simples o estructuras mucho más complejas en una sola pieza. Una sola máquina de corte por láser puede sacar adelante el trabajo de varias máquinas con otras tecnologías.
  • Programación CNC: Lo que implica un gran ahorro de tiempo, aumento de la precisión y una disminución de los errores.
  • La tasa de accidentes es mínima: Al haber una mínima intervención humana en el proceso, los accidentes laborales disminuyen. 

A diferencia de los procesos tradicionales de corte de materiales, el corte por láser garantiza la calidad de los resultados, con una alta rentabilidad y rapidez al elaborar piezas en cantidades masivas; además que este tipo de técnica no genera residuos tóxicos o agresivos con el ambiente.

En otro orden de ideas, existe otra técnica para modelar metales, conocida como el plegado de metales Esta técnica implica el uso de una prensa, la cual está conformada por una herramienta superior, conocida como el punzón, y una herramienta inferior, llamada matriz. La prensa controla el movimiento de ambas herramientas, y suministra la fuerza por medio de servomotores eléctricos o bombas hidráulicas. El ángulo de plegado es determinado por la profundidad de penetración del punzón dentro de la matriz.

LASER MECAFORT es una empresa especialista en corte por láser y plegado de metales con más de 17 años de experiencia en el mercado. Cuentan con una capacidad de producción que sobrepasa los 10 millones de piezas de corte por láser anuales; esto gracias al uso de tecnología de primera y el trabajo en conjunto con marcas como TRUMPF y AMADA, las cuales son líderes en el mercado mundial de alta gama y venta de maquinaria laser y plegadoras.

La tecnología láser TRUMPF incluye sistemas para el corte, marcado y tratamiento de superficies y componentes tanto bidimensionales como tridimensionales. La compañía cuenta con láseres de CO2 de alto rendimiento, láseres de diodo, láseres de marcaje, láseres de soldadura, ofreciendo resultados de alta calidad y precisión.

Para el plegado de metales LASER MECAFORT opera con maquinaria japonesa de alta gama marca AMADA. La característica principal de esta maquinaria es su alto rendimiento, ya que permite programar y sacar desarrollos con precisión exacta previo a elaboración de la pieza. Esta tecnología permite instalar múltiples estaciones de trabajo en las cuales la maquinaria es configurada una sola vez para realizar variedad de plegados.

LASER MECAFORT realiza trabajos en cualquier tipo de metales y ofrece diversidad de espesores para los cortes por láser: en acero al carbono de 0,5 a 25 mm, acero inoxidable de 0,5 a 20 mm, aluminio de 0,5 a 12mm, latón de 0,5 a 10 mm, y cobre de 0,5 a 8 mm. En cuanto al plegado de metales, LASER MECAFORT cuenta con punzones con ángulos desde 85 a 30 grados, una gama que va desde punzones rectos hasta patas de cabra para jugar con las pestañas a necesidad del plano; poseen matrices mono V con altura de 120 mm, con lo que ofrecen de hasta 30 grados o aplastado. 


Redacción: Ing. Gabriela Figueroa
Edición: Ing. Aaron Paradas

Industrial peristaltic pumps: discover how they work



The needs of the industrial sector cause the use of almost all types of industrial pumps, with certain preferences in applications that need bombs of positive displacement, such us, the employment of industrial peristaltic pumps. 


Industrial peristaltic pumps, how they work?


The industrial peristaltic pumps are a certain type of positive displacement pump which can be used for pumping a wide variety of fluids, move and push liquids and solids. This form of positive displacement pump is based on alternating compression and relaxation of the tube or tube, then drawing the contents back in the tube or hose. 

The design of a peristaltic pump consists of a flexible tube embedded inside a circular cover that is inside the pump. The operation of the pumps is simple; while the rotor rotates the part of the tube closes the fluid in a way that forces it to move through the tube.

Once the cycle ends, the tube opens again to start again after the action of the cam.
We can say that industrial peristaltic pumps work like our intestines. Due to the fact that the pump doesn´t contaminate or touch the product to be pumped, industrial peristaltic pumps are used to pump harsh liquids since they don´t damage the pump. They are also capable of pumping out minerals and corrosive gases.

In theory, a peristaltic pump would be ideal if it has an infinite diameter of the head and the largest possible diameter between the rollers. The problem with this pump is that, in practice, its manufacture is not possible. Therefore, a manufacturer of peristaltic pumps must approach the parameters of an ideal peristaltic pump capable of providing a constant flow and free of pulsations due to the unlimited life of the pump.

Although it is ideal for dispensing beverages, for food manufacturing or pharmaceutical production, it is advisable to consult the manufacturer of peristaltic pumps to see if it is possible to use it in the pumping of wastewater, toxic sludge in mining or even for pumping machines in certain open heart surgical operations.


In those applications where the isolation of the product is essential, it is necessary to have industrial peristaltic pumps, such as handling of dry matter and solid particles.
Using industrial peristaltic pumps, characteristics, advantages, and applications

The internal characteristics of the hose carried by industrial peristaltic pumps make it possible to work in extreme conditions. The good thing is that the hoses can be removed and put easily in a matter of minutes. The elastomeric hoses are suitable for the handling of sensitive, toxic and viscous products such as sludge, gases, and oil.

The flexibility of the hoses allows a symmetrical design that reduces backflow and makes it fully reversible. A manufacturer of self-supporting peristaltic pumps will equip these machines with hoses prepared to pump all kinds of liquids (very liquid or cut sauces, products with solids or particles in suspension), fluids and products.

The flexibility of the hoses allows a symmetrical design that reduces backflow and makes it fully reversible. A peristaltic pumps manufacturer will equip these machines with hoses prepared to pump all kinds of liquids (very liquid or cut sauces, products with solids or particles in suspension), fluids and products.

Choosing an incorrect pump or hose can damage the solid fraction or cause spillage of the product inside the pump. The good thing about industrial peristaltic pumps is that they are very well isolated, have no mechanical seal, require little maintenance and are capable of pumping fluids with dry matter such as sludge, sludge, slurry, organic waste, and glycerine.







Thursday, January 5, 2017

REFUND POLICY FOR PAYONEER


Payment Refund Policy

  • The entire amount will be refunded if I can’t manage schedules after accepting a project.
  • I accept payment by milestones, there will be no refund for milestones completed (as agreed by the client).
  • If I can not finish the project within deadline, the client can ask for refund of the current milestone and they can end the contract
  • Monday, February 29, 2016

    Variable frequency driver – Engineer and Installation 1/#



    Nowadays, using variable frequency drivers is the most common way to control AC motor´s speed in industries worldwide, looking to avoid DC motors in the system and therefore eliminated the maintenance of the brushes and the expensive control systems.

    Once it’s decided to install a VFD in the process whichever it might be, developing engineering for its proper installation is need, and the following article highlights some of the factors that have to be considered.

    In first place is important to have in mind during the engineering process that the installation can be one of the two following:

    1. The VFD will be installed with a motor that has been design to run with a VFD. The article will focus on this option.

    2. The VFD will be installed with an old motor that used to run without speed control, and it was not design to work with a VFD. Considerations in this case will be analyzed in an up-coming article.

    For the first case New Motor – New VFD, the following points shall be taken under consideration:

    1. Location of the VFD.

    2. Distance from VFD to Motor (total wiring route).

    3. Type of cable from the VFD to the motor.

    4. Kind of wiring installation.

    5. Installation of control wiring.

    6. Electrical protection against short-circuits and terminal overload.

    7. Harmonics generated by the VFD.

    8. Effects of reflected waves.

    9. High frequency Foucault currents between the motor and the pump or compressor.

    10. VFD autonomy when faults in the main power feeder.



    1. Location of the VFD.

    A VFD is an electrical equipment with electronic components that generate a lot of heat, therefore it has to be notice that the VFD should have internal fans to help the refrigeration, the environmental conditions play a key factor in the engendering process for this matter.

    2. Distance from the VFD to the Motor.

    The distance in this case is no relate to the voltage drop that it produces, it is suppose that the cable has been selected accordingly to this considering the distance and the installation type. In this case is important to be aware of the distance in order to eliminate any reflections in the tension wave, which may be present as a result of long distances between VFD and Motor. The distance from the VFD and the motor (wiring distance) should be always informed to the manufacture, depending on the technology used, filters may be needed in the arrangement.

    3. Cable used to feed the motor

    There are several literatures regarding this matter, at the same time some manufactures design cables to be used exclusively with from the VFD to the motor and is one of the most expensive items in the project.

    The cable that goes from the CCM to the VFD can be a regular cable. The cable that goes from the VFD to the motor have to be special for the application, further analysis on this subject will be presented.

    Control the AC motor speed using a VFD is something that has become more frequent over time. Let’s reason the cable design more suitable to avoid the troubles that come with it, the manufactures usually present this information to the client but sometimes are not considered as a result of negligence or ignorance of the actual problem.

    4. Power Cable Wiring

    The cable should be installed apart from other feeders of the system. Different VFD cables to motors can be installed in the same route. It is recommended that the cable from the CCM to the VFD, VFD to Motor and control cables are installed separately.

    It’s important to avoid that the cable to the motor goes parallel to other cables for long distances, this to avoid electromagnetic interferences produce by changes in the voltage at the VFD.

    If the control cables and the power cables have to crus at certain point, be sure that they do it with an angle of 90 degrees from each other.

    The air way trays shall have a good electrical connection between them and respect the grounding system. It’s recommended to use aluminum air ways to level the potential more efficiently

    5. Selection and routing of control cables

    Similar to the power cables they should go through separated routes.

    All control cable shall be shield.

    Shall be used a twisted par with double shield cable for analog signals. This kind of cable is also recommended for the signals of the pulse generator. Use an individual pair for each signal. Do not use a combined return for different analog signals.

    The best alternative for low voltage digital signals is a cable with double shield, but a several cables with simple shield can also be used.

    Analog and digital signals should be transmitted through separated shield cables.

    The signals controlled by a relay can be transmitted through the same cable used for digital entries, as long as the voltage is less than 48 V. It is recommended that the signals controlled by relay are transmitted using a twisted pair cable.

    24 V DC and 115/230 V AC signals never have to combine in the same cable.


    See it in Spanish


    E.g. Enrique Paradas

    Thursday, December 17, 2015

    Basics Of Motor Starters And Contactors - Repost

    Welcome to this EATON’s guide, which is about starters, devices that control the use of electrical power to equipment, usually a motor. As the name implies, starters “start” motors. They can also stop them, reverse them, accelerate them, and protect them.
    Starters are made from two building blocks, contactors and overload protection:
    • Contactors control the electric current to the motor. Their function is to repeatedly establish and interrupt an electrical power circuit.
    • Overload Protection protects motors from drawing too much current and overheating, from literally “burning out.


    The Contactors

    A contactor can stand on its own as a power control device, or as part of a starter. Contactors are used in applications ranging from the light switch to the most complex, automated industrial equipment.
    Contactors are used by electrical equipment that isfrequently turned off and on (opening and closing the circuit), such as lights, heaters, and motors.
    Whatever the application, the function of the contactor is always the same: to make and break all power supply lines running to a load. Or, as defined by NEMA, to repeatedly establish and interrupt an electrical power circuit.
    We’ll start by talking about the building blocks of a starter: the contactor and overload protection. We will then conclude with a discussion on starters.
    Here are the topics that we will cover:
    1. The Contactor (magnetic contactor, how the contactor operates, contact life etc.)
    2. Overload Protection (How motors work, what is an overload?, overload relay, tripping etc.)
    3. The Starter (magnetic motor starter, starter circuitry, types, standards and ratings etc.)
    4. Helping the Customer (NEMA or IEC?, checking the motor nameplate etc.)
    Download




    Monday, November 23, 2015

    Transfer Switch Application and Selection Manual - Repost

    This Manual is intended to provide guidance in the selection and application of transfer switch equipment in a variety of power generation situations. Transfer equipment is available in many configurations, all sharing the same basic function, that of providing a means to connect electrical loads to either of two independent power sources.

    Download:
    http://electrical-engineering-portal.com/download-center/books-and-guides/power-substations/transfer-switch-selection

    Thursday, July 30, 2015

    How Loud Is a Wind Turbine


    Monday, July 27, 2015

    Electrical Installation Guide 2015 - FREE Download Now


    Designer, Consultant, Contractor, Panel builder, Facility manager, Student, teacher, Standardisation or certification experts. we all have to know and comply to electrical installation standards and regulations, in order to ensure the safety (and more and more the energy efficiency) of our customers' electrical installations. 

    These international standards, set by the IEC, are complex and keep evolving; as a result, we struggled to stay informed.
    As an example, are you aware that the IEC 60364 "Low-voltage electrical installations" part 4-42 "Protection for safety - Protection against thermal effects" has been updated in 2014, and that in particular it now includes recommendations for arc fault protection? 
    - in premises with sleeping accommodations; 
    - in locations with risks of fire due to the nature of processed or stored materials 
    [...] 
    In a.c. circuits, the use of arc fault detection devices (AFDDs) in compliance with IEC 62606 will satisfy the above-mentioned recommendation." 

    The technology also evolves, which may impact the way we design installations: as an example, LED lighting is increasing its share very fast, and as you know the LED lamps electrical characteristics and behavior (at startup in particular) require special care to be taken when choosing the related control and protection devices. And there is nothing worse than a customer site where the lighting circuit breakers may trip, or where the contactors may face welding of contacts, requiring urgent and costly on-site intervention.


    Fortunately, experts in the field from Schneider Electric got together in order to update the Electrical Installation Guide (EIG), a free and complete guide about electrical installations and the related standards. 


    Edited since several dozen years, it is a reference work which helps you understand and comply to the IEC standards to be applied in 2015. Thanks to this free and simplified guide, you'll ensure the reliability of your commercial, industrial, or domestic electrical installations. 

    What's new or updated in 2015 edition of the Electrical Installation Guide? 
    An updated list of relevant IEC standards, new content about LED lighting, new content about Arc Fault Detection Devices (AFDD), some updated chapters about "connection to the MV utility distribution network" and "MV and LV architecture selection guide for buildings", and also some updated examples of Energy Management architectures. 


    The content of the Electrical Installation Guide (2015 version) is clear and practical; there's no other guide of that stature! 


    The paper version costs 60€ but we propose you to DOWNLOAD the EIG 2015 right NOW and FOR FREE by clicking on the button below:

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